Lisa Hyndman

Metternich -
  • Concert of Europe - consisted of the Quadruple Alliance(Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain), maintain the balance of power
  • Balance of Power - equilibrium among the great powers
Turkish/Ottoman Empire -
  • The empire begins to disintegrate
  • European nations were eager to take their share of the empire
Russia -
  • War breaks out with Ottoman Empire, wants to enlarge it's sphere of influence
  • demands the right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine(already given to France)
  • invades Moldavia and Walachia when Ottomans refused
  • Ottoman Empire delcares war on Russia on October 4, 1853 - unable to resolve the dispute
Great Britain/France -
  • Declare war on Russia on March 28 because of a concern in the upset of the balance of power
  • British feared Russia would seiz Ottoman territory, making it a major power, and challenge British naval control of the eastern Mediterranean.
  • Napoleon III believed Russians insulted France
  • attacked Russia's crimean peninsula in the Black Sea
  • Main Russian fortress of Sevastopol falls after a long siege and huge losses for both sides(6 months after Tsar Nicholas I dies)
Austria -
  • remained Neutral
Tsar Alexander II -
  • Successor of Nicholas I
  • asked for peace
  • Treaty of Paris:
    • Russia was forced to give up Bessarabia at the mouth of the Danube River and accept the neutrality of the Black Sea
    • Moldavia and Walachia were placed under the protection of all the great powers
Florence Nightengale -
  • insisted on strict sanitary conditions during the war, saved many lives
  • helped make nursing a profession of trained, middle-class women
Outcome of War -
  • Concert of Europe = destroyed
  • Austria and Russia enemies due to Austria's neutrality
Alfred, Lord Tennyson -
  • Charge of the Light Brigade - disasters of the Battle of Balaclava
  • Half a league half a league,
    Half a league onward,
    All in the valley of Death
    Rode the six hundred:
    'Forward, the Light Brigade!
    Charge for the guns' he said:
    Into the valley of Death
    Rode the six hundred.

    'Forward, the Light Brigade!'
    Was there a man dismay'd ?
    Not tho' the soldier knew
    Some one had blunder'd:
    Theirs not to make reply,
    Theirs not to reason why,
    Theirs but to do & die,
    Into the valley of Death
    Rode the six hundred.

    Cannon to right of them,
    Cannon to left of them,
    Cannon in front of them
    Volley'd & thunder'd;
    Storm'd at with shot and shell,
    Boldly they rode and well,
    Into the jaws of Death,
    Into the mouth of Hell
    Rode the six hundred.

    Flash'd all their sabres bare,
    Flash'd as they turn'd in air
    Sabring the gunners there,
    Charging an army while
    All the world wonder'd:
    Plunged in the battery-smoke
    Right thro' the line they broke;
    Cossack & Russian
    Reel'd from the sabre-stroke,
    Shatter'd & sunder'd.
    Then they rode back, but not
    Not the six hundred.

    Cannon to right of them,
    Cannon to left of them,
    Cannon behind them
    Volley'd and thunder'd;
    Storm'd at with shot and shell,
    While horse & hero fell,
    They that had fought so well
    Came thro' the jaws of Death,
    Back from the mouth of Hell,
    All that was left of them,
    Left of six hundred.

    When can their glory fade?
    O the wild charge they made!
    All the world wonder'd.
    Honour the charge they made!
    Honour the Light Brigade,
    Noble six hundred!
Kipling's Response -
  • Poem - The Last of the Light Brigade - Aftermath of the War - England talk about the greatness of the Charge of the Light Brigade but soldiers are left in the streets, unappreciated.
    • There were thirty million English who talked of England's might,
    • There were twenty broken troopers who lacked a bed for the night.
    • They had neither food nor money, they had neither service nor trade;
    • They were only shiftless soldiers, the last of the Light Brigade.

    • They felt that life was fleeting; they knew not that art was long,
    • That though they were dying of famine, they lived in deathless song.
    • They asked for a little money to keep the wolf from the door;
    • And the thirty million English sent twenty pounds and four !

    • They laid their heads together that were scarred and lined and grey;
    • Keen were the Russian sabres, but want was keener than they;
    • And an old Troop-Sergeant muttered, "Let us go to the man who writes
    • The things on Balaclava the kiddies at school recites."

    • They went without bands or colours, a regiment ten-file strong,
    • To look for the Master-singer who had crowned them all in his song;
    • And, waiting his servant's order, by the garden gate they stayed,
    • A desolate little cluster, the last of the Light Brigade.

    • They strove to stand to attention, to straighen the toil-bowed back;
    • They drilled on an empty stomach, the loose-knit files fell slack;
    • With stooping of weary shoulders, in garments tattered and frayed,
    • They shambled into his presence, the last of the Light Brigade.

    • The old Troop-Sergeant was spokesman, and "Beggin' your pardon," he said,
    • "You wrote o' the Light Brigade, sir. Here's all that isn't dead.
    • An' it's all come true what you wrote, sir, regardin' the mouth of hell;
    • For we're all of us nigh to the workhouse, an' we thought we'd call an' tell.

    • "No, thank you, we don't want food, sir; but couldn't you take an' write
    • A sort of 'to be continued' and 'see next page' o' the fight?
    • We think that someone has blundered, an' couldn't you tell 'em how?
    • You wrote we were heroes once, sir. Please, write we are starving now."

    • The poor little army departed, limping and lean and forlorn.
    • And the heart of the Master-singer grew hot with "the scorn of scorn."
    • And he wrote for them wonderful verses that swept the land like flame,
    • Till the fatted souls of the English were scourged with the thing called Shame.

    • O thirty million English that babble of England's might,
    • Behold there are twenty heroes who lack their food to-night;
    • Our children's children are lisping to "honour the charge they made - "
    • And we leave to the streets and the workhouse the charge of the Light Brigade!