Desi Oktaviani

Astronomy during the Scientific Revolution


Thesis: During the Scientific Revolution astronomy became a vital subject, many astronomers such as Ptolemy developed new theories of where the universe stood and other astronomers who did not believe in these concepts were able to prove them wrong by usage of the telescope by Galileo.
v Ptolemy
Ø Geocentric Conception
¨ Universe was seen as a series of concentric spheres
¨ Earth was motionless and was the center
¨ Earth thought to be imperfect and transformed continuously
Ø Empyrean Heaven
¨ Location of God and all saved souls
v Copernicus
Ø Doctorate in canon law, canon of a cathedral, focused on math and astronomy
Ø On The Revolutions of The Heavenly Sphere
§ Heliocentric theory
¨ Sun-Centered conception
¨ Universe had 8 spheres
¨ Sun was motionless at the center instead of the earth
¨ The earth and planets revolved in circular orbits
v Brahe
Ø Danish astronomer
Ø Theory
§ The sun and planets revolved around the Earth
§ Other planets revolved around the sun
Ø Built an observatory near Copenhagen
v Kepler
Ø Music of the spheres
Ø 3 Laws of planetary motion
§ Planets orbit is an ellipse with the sun at focus
§ Speed of a planet is greater when closer to the sun
§ Average distance of the planet from the sun and time to complete one revolution around the sun
v Galileo
Ø Italian astronomer, mathematician and psychiatrist
Ø Constructed 1st complete astronomical telescope
Ø Starry Messenger
§ Europeans were aware of new picture of the universe, supporter of Copernicus’ heliocentric system, Roman Inquisition wanted Galileo to reject Copernicus’ thesis
Ø Inertia
§ Tendency of matter to remain at rest and continue to move at fixed directions
Ø Discoveries
§ Moon with a reflected light
§ Uneven mountainous surface
§ Milky way was made up of numerous stars
v Newton
Ø Invented calculus; calculates rate of change
Ø Discovered law of universal gravitation
Ø White light is composed of all the colors of the spectrum
Ø President of royal society
Ø Mechanistic universe
§ God is still apart of earth
Ø Principia:
§ Mathematical proofs for his Universal Law of Gravitation
Ø Universal law of gravity-
§ Every body in the universe attracts every other body in precise mathematical relationship,
Ø Sun, moon ,earth, planets and all other bodies moved in accordance with the same basic force of gravitation