Lisa Hyndman

Science -
  • Michael Faraday:
    • discoveries in electromagnetic induction and electrolysis
    • invention of the electric motor
  • Charles Darwin:
    • Traveled on the HMS Beagle to the Galapagos Islands on a Science Expedition around the world
    • On the Origin of Species by the means of Natural Selection -
      • More organisms are born than can survive = competition
      • Theory of Evolution - organisms evolve slowly over time from simpler forms of life through means of Natural Selection
      • Theory of Natural Selection - survival of the fittest, only the organisms exhibiting favorable characteristics for their environment can survive
      • Variants - different, or a variety of characteristics within a species.
    • Descent of Man - humans descented from animals
    • conflicted with the religious view that God created humans, many people opposed his theories.
  • Auguste Comte:
    • Positive philsophy - positism, positive knowledge
    • Mathematics is the foundation for all sciences, heirarchy of sciences

Health Care -
  • Pasteur:
    • creator of the first vaccines (rabies)
    • described the scientific basis of fermentation
    • The germ theory - Pasteurization - heating a product to destroy bacteria and germs to prevent spoiling.
  • Dimitri Mendeleyev:
    • formulated the Periodic law - organized the chemical elements based on their atomic weights and predicted the existence of other elements.
  • Joseph Lister:
    • studied the natural inflammation of post-operative injuries/infections
    • Carbolic acid - used as a disinfectant to prevent infection
    • improved cleanliness of hospitals dramatically
    • Antiseptic principle - advocates the use of antiseptics to prevent disease and infection in hospitals
  • Elizabeth Blackwell:
    • first woman to graduate from medical school and receive an MD

Literature -
  • Gustave Flaubert:
    • Madame Bovary - a woman trapped in an unhappy marraige, commits adultery, and in the end commits suicide
      • condemned as offensive to morality and religion and the book was banned
  • William Thackeray:
    • Vanity Fair - "A Novel without a Hero"
  • Charles Dickens:
    • known for describing the conditions of the unfortunate, lower classes

Art -
  • Gustave Coubert:
    • painted scenes from lower class in their natural, everday life.
    • The Stonebreakers
      • external image Courbet8.jpg
  • Jean Millet:
    • The Gleaners - rural life
      • external image thegleaners-1857.jpg?w=445&h=300


SOURCES:
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/blackwellelizabeth/a/eliz_blackwell.htm
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/comte/
http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/flaubert.htm
http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/wmthacke.htm
http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/charlesdickens.html
http://www.rehsgalleries.com/Gustave_Courbet_Bio.html
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/millet.html
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blfaraday.htm
http://www.lucidcafe.com/lucidcafe/library/96feb/darwin.html
http://www.chemistry.mtu.edu/~pcharles/SCIHISTORY/Mendeleyev.html
http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Lister/lister.htm