Maria Ota

Evaluate the relative importance of the religious rivalries and dynastic ambitions that shaped the course of the Thirty Years' War. (1618-1648)

Thesis: The religious tension between the Protestants and the Catholics throughout Europe roughly set up the Thirty Years' War
because several countries attempted to invade neighbooring countries and establish a religion that conflicted with their religious beliefs.

Causes of Thirty Years' War
    • France felt threatened from Spanish HRE (Holy Roman Empire)
    • Spain wanted to regain Netherlands (Protestant Northern Dutch provinces)
    • Austria (part of HRE) eliminated Protestantism and established stronger central authority
    • Peace of Augsburg (1555)- ended religious rebellions Lutherans vs. Catholics, didn't recognize Calvinists
    • Protestant Union (1608)- Palatinate Calvinist ruler Frederick IV rejects Emperor (Ferdinand II)
      • had Dutch, English, French support
    • Catholic League (1609)- Bavarian Duke Maximillian supports Spain and HRE, counteract Protestant Union (South Province)
  • Wars
    • Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)- Protestant Bohemia accepted King Ferdinand but nobles were Calvinists
      • defenestration of Prague: Protestant nobles rebelled throwing emperor Matthia's emissaries out the window and he survived
      • Ferdinand deposed Fredrick V
      • win for Protestants
    • Danish Phase (1625-1629)- Lutheran King Christian IV invades Northern Germany
      • Danes crushed by Imperial HRE Albrecht von Wallenstein
      • HRE Ferdinand II-Edict of Restitution (prohibits Calvinism & restores Chatholics lost land since 1552)
      • win for Catholics
    • Swedish Phase (1630-1635)- Lutheran King G. Adolphus invades Germany, Baltic Sea is a Swedish lake
      • Battle of Lutzen-Swedish victory, Adolphus killed
      • Battle of Nordingen- Swedes lose, emperor annuls Edict of Restitution
      • win for HRE
    • Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648)-
      • French invades HRE -support Swedes against Habsburgs
      • politics over religion
      • Battle of Rocroi (1643)- French defeat Spanish=end of Spanish military greatness)
      • dominance of France in Europe
      • Swedes lose control of north
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)- German states remain independent (weak for 200 years)
    • French happy, gain control of German territory
    • Religion and politics separate- pope ignored in all decisions